Some of the intellectual brains in Science have unfolded many of the mysteries which are unsolvable. But, even this range of intellectual scientists and humanities began to wonder why the Multiverse exists and tried to answer it. The energy form that fuels eternal inflation and big-bang is unidentified. Truly, the world is remade by the science, but the scientists have not finished yet. By discovering Gravitational force, The Scientists proved that the flat earth theory is wrong. But, the existence of gravitons is still questioned. Likewise, the introduction of Quantum mechanics or Quantum physics, a new branch in physics, and the physical properties of nature was posted as atomic state. But, Scientists are still mystified about quantum physics.
As it states the possibility of dual state of an atom, it is differed from Quantum Physics. The dual state of an atom is called as “quantum superposition.” If this superposition is applied to an event, it routes to two possibilities in a similar universe without any interaction. This is only possible if any alternate reality exists in the same universe. But, the concept of quantum decoherence examines that this is not possible due to observation by an observer.
The Supporters of this concept states that the Multiverse has no wave function collapse. To prove Multiverse, the double-slit experiment is performed. It particularize that light could show properties of wave and particles instead of showing anyone of them.
In classical physics, Light is considered to be shown one of the properties of either wave or particles. Being a thought experiment, it led into demonstrational state.
The definitions of classical physics have to be revised on light due to duality of wave-particle. Factually, Parallel Universe becomes concept from myth is due to the dual position of an atom or event. Parallel universe is also known as “Multiverse”. It is learnt that Multiverse, a theoretical universe, is a hypothetical group of multiple universes that consists of what the whole universe aggregate of within itself. In 1895, the term “Multiverse” was coined by William James, American Philosopher and Psychologist in a context of fiction. Multiple universes have been hypothesized in Cosmology, Physics, Astronomy, and Philosophy and transperal psychology. Particularly in cosmology, quantum mechanics and philosophy, the actual physical nature of various possible configurations or history is often assured. In Philosophy, Buddhists theorize quantum worlds are like a garland of flowers. In these Contexts, Parallel Universes are also called as,
“Alternate universes”, “Quantum universes”, “Interdependent dimensions”, “Parallel worlds”, “Parallel dimensions”, “Quantumuniverses”, “Parallel dimensions”, “Quantum worlds”, ” Correspondingrealities” and “Alternate timelines.”
Various Multiverse theories have been debated by the Physics community over a period of time. Some of them were Wave function Universes, Daughter Universes, Bubble Universes, Mathematical Universes and Dimensional Universes. According to Dimensional Universes, “The Physical Universe is like a soap that is inflating and regenerating.” According to Max Tegmark, “Physical Universe has mathematical structure.” Mathematical structure adds on an extra dimension to quantum reality.
According to Hugh Everett, “If a dice is cast, there are six possible outcomes in the several distinct universes.” According to Eternal Inflation theory, “While inflation is eternal for the future, it is not eternal for the past.” On analyzing Multiverse, Albert Einstein, Father of Physics, found that the Multiverse is not scientific. Therefore, Albert Einstein takes many efforts to merge his General theory of Relativity with Multiverse. Anthropic Principle is a cosmological principle within which the Multiverse theories are limited by the demands to accommodate human life. These theories are suggesting that Multiverse is possible. But, these theories do not prove it practically. Multiverse is used as a fantasy in literature. Writing that essay is to answer the possibility of Multiverse, the reason of being interpreted as mystery and states the theories and criticism on Parallel Universe.
II. HISTORY AND ITS ORIGINATION
The idea of the parallel universe was proposed within the Greek Philosophy which is before the birth of Christ. According to the Hellenic Atomism, Collision of Atoms has led to the formation of the infinite parallel universe. The World has perpetually lapsed and regenerated, is recommended by Chrysippus, a philosopher who lived within the third century. His Ideology is suggesting the chance of multiple Universes over time effectively. In the middle ages, The Concept of Parallel Universe became well-defined. At that time, Erwin Schrodinger has won a noble prize in Physics for his Schrodinger’s equation. His equation describes the wave function or state function of a quantum-mechanical system. This equation is considered as landmark in quantum mechanics.
It shows a direction to calculate the system’s wave function and the way it changes in the course of time. Indirectly, it states that the wave function is interpretation of quantum mechanics. It opens up the possibility for Parallel Universe. To state this probability, Erwin Schrodinger triggered the hearth to show the existence of multiple universes through his lecture in Dublin. In 1952, a Lecture was given by Schrodinger within which he warned his audience humorously that he was going to say something which might give the impression of foolishness. He said that when his equations looked as if it would describe a variety of different histories they were not happening as alternatives, but all really occurs concurrently. This Kind of duality is called “Superposition”. A superposition is a state where an atom can be found in two or more realities within the same universe.
Even though Schrodinger starts the proceeding for Multiverse, he cannot scrutinize it as a theory. Hugh Everett-III was an American physicist, who was worked on the Schrodinger’s equation to derive and formulate it as a theoretical work.
By his theory, the scientists were realized that the universe was splitting itself due to the quantum effects. “The Quantum wave derivation” and become a part of Quantum Physics. Essentially, it includes the relationship between wave function and its collapse. A wave-equation function is a function, which describes the characteristics of a wave. The Quantum state of an isolated quantum system is defined by this equation. The wave function has the common symbols that are derived by psi Greek alphabet. The wave function is written as degree function in time equations.
III. THE QUANTUM WAVE EQUATION
The Universal wave function is the wave function is the wave or quantial state of the entire existence, which is considered as the fundamental entity, because always following an equation of the deterministic wave”. The term ‘Wave function’ is formulated and introduced by Hugh Everett’s “The Quantum wave derivation.” The Core concept in the relative state interpretation or many-worlds interpretation is formed by this theory. In More recent times, it has also been investigated by James Hartle and Stephen Hawking to describe the initial conditions of big bang cosmology in a particular equation of Wheeler-de Witt.
In the preface of Research Paper, Everett introduced as follows:
“As the definition of the function of the universal state is true uniformly, it can be regarded as the fundamental entities and even the status function of the entire universe can be considered. In this Context, This theory can be called the theory of “Universal Wave function”, which is expected to derive from all of physics alone. The Concept of Wave function is postulated from Schrodinger’s equation. It is a function that fulfills the wave equation and states the properties of wave. In Quantum Mechanics, A Wave function is a mathematical representation of the quantum status of an isolated quantum system. It is a non-negligible type of an interpretation.
There is Complex probability amplitude for a Wave function, which can be derived from the probabilities of possible system effects for measurements. The Wave function depends on the degrees of freedom corresponding to the maximum number of observable commuters. Also, The Wave function can be determined by the quantum state after such a representation is picked. It is also unlike the domain of a Wave function which is not the single choice of commuting degrees of freedom to use by the transformation of Fourier. There is non-zero spin in some of the particles such as electrons and photons, and spin is an intrinsic discrete degree of freedom for such particles on separate states, which is relevant to superposition.
A Quantum superposition is a feature of quantum system through which it exists at two different states within the same line. On the account of measurement, we can obtain only value. In the superposition principle of quantum physics, Wave functions will be added and multiplied with complex numbers. According to the traditional Copenhagen interpretation, Taking measurement will lead to collapse of wave function. Truly, The Wave function in Multiverse cannot be subsided. Adding on the point, The Wave function illustrates the properties of Multiverse. In a Multiverse, the total information about the particles is proximate to the observer. If an electron spins upwards on one universe, it will spin downwards on another universe.
The Mathematical Universe Hypothesis was proposed by Max Tegmark, a Swedish- American Physicist. it’s defined because the Ultimate Ensemble Theory in Physics and Cosmology, may be a Speculative theory of everything. Tegmark’s Mathematical Universe hypothesis states that the external physics reality is like Mathematical structure. Mathematical structure doesn’t describe the structure of Physical Universe. Specifically, it adds a mathematical dimension to the physical universe. Physical existence is equated by Mathematical existence and also corresponds to the all existing structures. He prioritizes observers like humans as “self-aware substructures.”
Subjectively, they might perceive themselves during a physically ‘real’ world in any mathematical system that’s complex enough to contain such structures. the idea could also be regarded by proposing mathematical entities as a sort of Pythagoreanism or Platonism’s- a mathematical monism. There are two assumptions to state it as theory of everything. Firstly, it doesn’t have free parameters and it’s not removed by observations. Secondly, Max takes Computable Universe Hypothesis under consideration , which states that the computable functions describe the mathematical framework that’s our external physics reality. The Mathematical Universes is said to the classification of 4 levels of Multiverse that’s proposed by Tegmark. Cosmologist Max Tegmark presented a universal taxonomy out of familiar universe that’s presented to incorporate and extend subsequent levels to previous levels.
On the primary level, the existence of an infinite ergodic universe may be a prediction of cosmic inflation that has got to contain Hubble volumes which fulfill all initial conditions, as they’re infinite. Therefore, an Infinite Universe will have an equivalent universal laws and universal constants, and it’ll contain a greater number of Hubble Volumes. With accordance to configuration just like the distribution of matter, most will vary from our Hubble volume. there’ll be infinite number of Hubble Volumes just like our self within the universe, which is way beyond the Cosmological horizon.
On the Second level, Different physical constants within the universe are noted. The Multiverse theory of eternal inflation, a version of a Universal inflation hypothesis, is suggesting that the Multiverse or space is expanding and can still inflate forever. it’s possible thanks to the presence of dark energy. But, certain areas of the universe avoid expanding and form distinct bubbles. It consists of gas bags during a pile of rising bread. These bubbles are embryonic Multiverse in first level. Spontaneously, various bubbles may experience symmetry breakdowns that cause various properties, like various physical constants.
Wheeler’s oscillating universe theory and Leesmolin’s fecund universe theory is included in second Level.
On the third level, one among the well-established or conventional interpretations of quantum physics is that the Third Hugh Everett’s Many-worlds interpretation. Compactly, The Unique feature of quantum physics is that some results aren’t completely predictable. But, variety of potential hypotheses are available with a special probability. Each of those potential observations, consistent with the many-worlds, coincides with a special universe.
Assume a six-sided dice is cast and therefore the results of the cast resembles the quantum phenomenon which will be used. On the Fourth level, Optimum universe is noted. Tegmark’s own hypothesis is that the Ultimate mathematical hypothesis. It assumes that every object has mathematical dimension.
All universes are considered to be real equally and may be represented by various mathematical structures. Third Level Multiverse doesn’t contains more possibilities than the primary level or second level universe is proposed by Max Tegmark. Also, Max adds on difference between the primary level and second level is thanks to the residence of doppelgangers. the character of Quantum worlds is static, and time is just illustrated. Adding Mathematical dimension to universe is to unzip the quantum reality. The mathematics has Unlimited numbers. If numbers are assigned as string, there’ll be trillions of strings within the universe. If the universe is inflating ceaselessly, there’s chance of creation of quantum realities in similar universe.
V. MANY-WORLDS THEORY
The Many-worlds Interpretation theory is a timely-honored interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. It is also known as “daughter universes theory’. It emphasize that the Universal Wave function is subjective and the collapse of the wave function is unrealistic. In comparison to many other theories, such as Copenhagen, the evolution of nature as a whole in Many more worlds is purely deterministic. This means that any possible outcome of quantum experiments is physically accomplished in a “world” or universe. Many-worlds theory is often referred to as the relative state interpretation or Everett’s interpretation, according to physicist Hugh Everett-III who postulated it for the first time in 1957.
In the 1960’s and 1970’s, Bruce Dewitt popularized and named it “many-worlds “. In many more worlds, the principle of quantum coherence describes the subjective nature of collapse of the wave function. Universally, since the 1970’s, Decoherence methodologies have become main stream for interpreting quantum theory were developed and evaluated. Many-worlds Interpretation, along with other interpretations of decoherence, Collapse theories that including the Copenhagen interpretation and secret theories such as bohemian mechanics. The definition of many more worlds theory suggests that there is many, even limitless, universe. This is one of the theories in Physics and Philosophy. In View of this theory, each event branch is unconnected.
Many-worlds interpretation considers time as a multifactory tree in which each Quantum Outcome is achieved. Some Paradoxes of Quantum theory, such as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Schrodinger’s Cat is included to be resolved by this theory. It is noted that every possible outcomes of a Quantum event exists in its own universe. Schrodinger’s lecture in Dublin is the earliest known reference in many-worlds theory. Everett’s Princeton doctoral thesis-“The Quantum wave derivation” is the starting point of the many-worlds theory. Originally, Everett called his approach as “correlation interpretation”, within which ‘correlation’ refers to quantum enlargement or quantum entanglement.
The main concept of the many worlds interpretation is that the universe is represented by unitary quantum mechanics. Specifically, this measurement is described as a unitary transition and postulates observers as ordinary quantum-mechanical systems. In contrast to the Copenhagen interpretation, the quantum mechanics does not described by measurement, as it is a primitive concept. The Universe is classified into traditional and quantum world, with a central postulate of collapse. The Many-worlds interpretation claims that the universe or Multiverse consists of a quantum superposition or indefinable. It is used as a key to solve double-slit experiment and Schrödinger’s cat, within which the cat is both alive and dead on different universes.
VI. STRING THEORY
String theory is a theoretical framework of physics, where one-dimensional structures called strings substitute the point-like particles in component physics. The theory of string explains the spreading and interacting of strings through space. The string theory explains that these strings propagate and communicate across space. A string behaves like a normal particle on a distance scale greater than the size of the string. Its mass, charge and other properties are determined by the irrational state of the string. In Quantum Physics, Several irrational states of the string correspond to the graviton, the quantum physics particle bearing gravitational force.
So, String theory is a quantum gravitational theory. String theory is a broad and diverse subject that seeks to answer a range of questions of fundamental physics. String theory has extended, and has been used for many significant developments in Pure Mathematics, Black hole Cosmology, Nuclear Physics and contended matter physics. Potentially, String theory has given a unified description of quantum physics, and a frontrunner for the Theory of Everything, an autonomous mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter. Even after many researches on these problems, the degree to which string theory represents the real world or the flexibility the theory provides to choose its information cannot be understood. In the backend of 1960’s, The String theory was studied as a strong nuclear force theory for the first time, but abandoned to quantum chromo dynamics. It was subsequently discovered that the properties themselves, which made string theories unacceptable as a nuclear physics theory, made them an excellent candidate for quantum gravity theory. The first edition of string theory, bosonic string theory, only consists of the class of bosons. Later it developed into a superstration theory that connects bosons with the class of particles known as fermions to super symmetry. Out of all theories, M-theory is the only contender of eleven dimensions which are within the single universe.
One of the problems of string theory is that in all cases the entire theory has no concrete definition. The theory describes an enormous field of alternative universes, which has made it difficult to construct particle physics theories, based on string theory. According to physicist Paul Steinhardt, “If it is a landscape really, it is death in theory in my opinion because of the loss of predictive value”. Even though everything is actually possible, the latest issues of dark energies include a way out for Steinhardt and others. In the words of Danielson,” A Picture with a big Multiverse could be mathematically incorrect”. It is paradoxically far more interesting because it means string theory is much more accurate than he thought it was.
The study of space is one of the main cosmological theories. The Infinite Universe theory is a theory based on cosmic inflation. It is also known as “eternal inflation theory.’The exact shape of space is still an unanswerable question in the minds of Physicists. Prominently, they interprets that the space and times would be flat and goes on forever. According to this theory, an expanding universe usually has a cosmological horizon that marks the limit of the part of the universe that an observer may see through an analogy with the more familiar horizon caused by the curvature of the surface of the Earth.
If the inflation in any Universe is stopped, the Universe begins to reproduce itself. It is happened not only two or three times but infinity number of times repeats the process of regeneration. The Universe is eternal within which we live may not have an endpoint, but will last forever. Scientists theorize that if a spaceship were to travel to reach the end of the universe, The Sun and moons and planets and Black holes will intermittently goes beyond it without have any breakpoint. Most of the Scientists turn their heads down to this idea. Travelling to a universe is still unthinkable by the astronomers. To reach out our universe, The Astronomers need to travel on the speed of light.
The Multiverse Hypothesis, advocated by other scientists and physicists, suggests that the spaceship would eventually hit the end of our universe and then the shift into another universe- and then another one and another for an infinite period of time. If one of these hypotheses is true, the infinite existence of space, along with the restricted way that particles can arrange themselves to form matter within which planets and organisms are all made out of it, leads to a horrible but inexorable truth: As we know it as a probability, Earth is regenerating itself again and again. Sean Carroll was a well-known physict, who was working on theoretical physics. Theoretical physics is a branch of knowledge which uses physical objects and systems to predict the nature.There will be uncountable number of atoms and particles within which is a measurable size in anyone region of the space . Truly, it is credible that there are billions of organisms on billions of Earths that might be similar or partly different or totally different. The Infinity Math creates this repetition at a credible state but also without any error. It is unfortunate that the reliability of this theory might not be found out, because it cannot be observed. The alternatives of the earth would be so distant that light from it would take longer time to reach it than the present universe power.
Therefore, the universe continues to expand on dark scale means that the Alternatives to the Earth are continues to evolve more and more.
Carroll emphasize that there is no way you can visit in any scientifically credible version of this universe, or visitors can come. It takes thousands or millions of years to reach another galaxy. This will take hundreds of billions of years to get out of our present measurable portion of the universe. It would take an unimaginably large, enormous amount of time to reach a planet with the same people on Earth. Still, a scientist has reached the universe. Then, he will take up his phone to tell this wonder. But, there is no effective communication system between the different universes. To communicate between two universes, A Bridge should be made to reduce the gap between two universes.
Schrodinger’s Cat is a thought experiment formulated as a paradox in 1935 by American Physicist, Erwin Schrodinger, in the course of conservation with Albert Einstein. Schrodinger demonstrated what he looked as the problem of applying the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum mechanics in everyday articles. To assert the hypothesis, A Hypothetical Cat which is alive as well dead is presented by the Scenario, within which as a consequence of its relation to a natural and subatomic occurrence, which could not occur in a state known as, “Quantum Superposition.” Quantum superposition is a state where a particle can be in dual states within a universe.
In Theoretical Discussions, The Interpretations of Quantum mechanisms are often featured by the thought experiment on the measurement problems. This thought experiment was postulated by Erwin Schrodinger in the exchange of letter between Einstein and Schrodinger as a part of EPR Article. The counterintuitive nature of quantum superposition is highlighted by EPR Article, which is named after Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen. In Quantum superposition, an atom or photon can exist as a combination of multiple states which is concurrent to different possible outcomes. Schrodinger also stated that the system of multiple particles separated by large distances can be placed in superposition. A radioactive atom is a key in this paradox.
A scenario in the life or death of a cat relied on the radiation of an atom. A Copenhagen interpretation or many-worlds interpretation are the interpretations to answer this thought experiment. A Copenhagen interpretation point out the cat is both alive and dead till the state is observed by observer. In Prevalence of Copenhagen interpretation, a quantum system remains in superposition as far as the interaction or observation occurs. If anyone of this happens, one of the possible states is collapsed into superposition. While the box is closed, the system exists in a superposition of the states which might be “dead cat” or “living cat.” At First Case, if the box is opened, performed observation will lead to wave function into one of the states.
But, Niels Bohr, an Associate of Copenhagen interpretation, regards it as statistical tool. But, Schrodinger states this thought experiment to prove the pointlessness of well-developed perspective of Quantum mechanics. The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics was formulated by Hugh Everett. The cat exist both alive and dead states unless the box is opened, but they are within different branches. Every event in this interpretation is a branch point. In First branch, The Observer opens the box and found the cat that is died due to radiation. In Second branch, The Observer opens the box and looks at the cat which is not dead. The Branches are equally real but cannot interact with each other as there is less-interactive.
As the dead and alive cat states are decoherent, there is no effective Communication or interaction between themselves. Due to Quantum coherence, the different outcomes have no interaction with each other. The many-worlds interpretation is suggesting the possibility of parallel universe. If a system is made of two or more subsystems, then the products of the subsystems will be under a superposition. Independently, each product of subsystem emphasized in the overall superposition by the passage of time. After the interaction of the sub-systems, their states were become entangled. So if an event occurs, there are possibly two outcomes in two different universes but there is nothing communicated between them.
Double-slit Experiment is the only scientific experiment to suggest the existence of Parallel Universe. Itis the demonstration of scientific phenomenon is referred as “Wave-particle duality”. It is also known as “twin-photon experiment.“In Modern Physics, The Double-slit Experiment is a hypothesis by Britain Polymath, Thomas Young, which shows that light and matter could also display characteristics of both long-defined waves’ and Particles. Fundamentally, The Probabilistic nature of quantum phenomena is displayed by this experiment. To show the Wave behavior of light, Thomas Young was performed this experiment in 1801. It was assumed that light consisted of waves or particles at a certain period of time. As wave-particle duality is uncertain, it is not theorized.
With the advent of modern physics, Light could show characteristics of both waves and particles in fact. On demonstrating wave theory of light, Young believed it as correct. This experiment was performed within different circumstances by different researchers. In the demonstration of Davisson and Germer, Electrons are behaving like Photons, which was tested also in atoms and molecules showed the same. In the version of Mach-zehnder, interferometer splits the beam with a mirror. Young’s slit with light was a part of classical physics before well-established fact in quantum mechanics and the concept of wave-particle duality. Sometimes, His Experiment referred to as “Young’s slits.” As light have certain findable particles, Quantum indeterminacy is asserted through this experiment. Light is the only thing that can travel faster in any alternate realities.
Quantum indeterminacy is a systematic state, which is the fundamental fact of formation of the Universe. When we analyze Quantum indeterminacy, it is up to all of us to understand it. The Process of the Experiment starts with firing of electrons. Firstly, The Scientists created a double-slit.
Secondly, A Electron is ready to fire through double-slit. Finally, an electron is fired and split into two waves. If a single electron has been shot by a double-slit gun, Researchers have to get the same or the other electrons, but the universe works differently. As against the property of acting only as a wave, the electron is passing through both slits concurrently and intervening with itself. Scientists are stunned to see the result of this experiment. A New concept has to be developed from this experiment. This has been given rise to this duality principle.
Due to the probability distribution, each individual electron will consummate, but each one ends up making only a single ‘strike’ on the screen of a background. The interference pattern would occur when you take thousands of electrons in a row. At some point, every interaction between two particles in the Universe has the inherence of Quantum indeterminism. So, every particle has both its position as well as momentum on an intrinsic uncertainty and when both of them interact, it propagates in the findable position and momentum as well. The Ideas like wave function collapse, and unit approach to possible outcomes and the many-worlds approach. To answer this experiment, The Relational interpretation and many-worlds have been formulated. The Copenhagen Interpretation is proposed by a number of pioneers in the field of Quantum mechanics.
In Quantum Mechanics, Copenhagen interpretation is more prioritized. But, it does not give a clear picture. According to the Relational interpretation, The Double-slit experiment result specifically due to its observations from the measuring apparatus and the object that is not physically with any other property. Initially, From the Case of electron, the interaction between the observer and particle provides information about the status of electron. Unless the electron is observed only in a particular slit, the which path information is not provided by scientists. If a single electron is passed through slit, the interference pattern will be formed. Therefore, The Space and distance are relational between themselves and so an electron can appear two places at once is stated, which defines the principle of Quantum Superposition.
The Many-worlds interpretation, an interpretation of quantum mechanics, is defined by Hugh Everett. In Quantum Mechanics, Many-worlds interpretation is an exposition to propound that the Universal Wave function is factual and objective in fact. In his book “The Fabric of Reality”, Physicist David Deustch states that the double-slit experiment is evidence for many-worlds interpretation. It is possible due to the Quantum Superposition. An electron can breakthrough in two places at the same time. Due to the Collapse of Wave function, Relational Interpretation will lead to one possible outcome not like many-worlds interpretation. So if an electron has quantum superposition, then there will be a possibility of alternate reality to Our Universe.
Multiverse is one of the concepts which raise the eyebrow of critics. Skeptics treat it as magician’s delight but not as scientific debate. The theory of Multiverse has been widely criticized rather than science as theory or ideology, a valid concern for disconnected forms of Multiverse content. Criticisms of Multiverse modeling appear less legitimate or admit some empirical verification level as the adverse effect to well-motivated and proven theories.
The validity and usefulness of anthropic arguments, including that that explains the observed low value of the cosmological constant, are some of the fiercest debate. Such reasoning on the one hand is probably no different than explaining the extremely unusual ambient temperature and local density on earth compared to most universe sites, because only a certain number of temperatures and densities can sustain life. On the Other hand, in the perspective of Multiverse, it is very hard to define just what the life was, or what it demands. Also, the chances for a given kind of existence in different universes are very hard to measure or compare. If a scientist is analyzing the Multiverse, they have to be open-minded and not narrow-minded.
There is also a possibility that anthropic explanations could be embraced for issues that could be clarified better and more elegantly by other factors. There is another problem because of the Ockham’s razor problem. The Ockham’s razor states that an entity or phenomenon should be preferred by the simplest explanation. The critics argue that other worlds are virtually ideal representations which are multiplied over the necessity. Some of the famous physicists who criticized Multiverse are David Gross, Paul Davies, George Ellis, Anna Ijjas, Abraham Loeb, David Spergel, Neil Turok, Viatcheslav Mukhanov, Michael S. Turner, Roger Penrose, Joe Silk, Carlo Rovelli, Adam Frank, Marcelo Gleiser and Jim Baggett.
In 2003, Paul Davies, author and cosmologist, offered a number of arguments that Multiverse theories are non-scientific, In the New York Times. He states that for just a beginning, how to test the existence of Multiverse? Surely, there are some regions of the universe beyond the range of our telescopes, is accepted by all cosmologists. But, also that legitimacy comes at a limit somewhere on the slippery slope between it and the belief that there are an unbeatable number of universes. If you fall down the pitch, you’re believed knowledge will close the doors for your scientific knowledge. In reality, it is just as make-do an infinite number of unknown dimensions to explain the peculiar characteristics of the individual we see.
In August 2011, George Ellis provided a criticism of the Multiverse, and pointing out that the Multiverse is well-beyond the cosmological horizon, but not a traditional scientific theory. Most physicists, in particular proponents, of a string theory, who write about Multiverse, care less about the parallel universes by itself. For them, there are no objections to the idea of the Multiverse. Our Hypotheses live or die on the basis of internal continuity and future scientific potentially.” Ellis says that scientists have raised the theory of Multiverse as an explanation for the existence of creation. He points out that these issues are largely left unanswered because it is a philosophical problem that the empirical research does not answer it.
Science and mysticism are the two sides of a multiple universes. On the Science side, a system or a concept is accepted only if it is proved in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the Universe. The existence of Multiverse is not proved as it requires scientific evidence rather than theoretical evidence. Multiverse placed on the mystic side by physics who were critic of this concept. They state that the Multiverse is a magician’s delight not scientific elite. These critics more rely on classical physics rather than on quantum physics. Quantum Physics is made a revolution as it views nature on an atomic state.
By the hold of equation, Schrödinger is the first physicist to express the duality of a same event within separate universes. This equation has been extended and developed into various theories. The existence of an atom in dual states is interpreted by quantum superposition, a concept of quantum theory or quantum physics. Applying this to an event gives two possibilities within the equivalent universe but on different states. But, this concept is questioned up by wave function collapse, which is proposed Copenhagen interpretation. Due to the observation by or interaction with the physical world, the dual probability state will be reduced into a single state. Also, It clarifies that wave function will be under a mystical position till it is observed.
As an answer to Skeptics, Schrodinger postulated a new thought experiment called as “Schrödinger’s Cat.” It is also as “Schrödinger’s Paradox.” He asserts that each and every occurrence of universe is a branch point. It is due to linkage of a subatomic event to another. His extent a scenario within which a hypothetical cat can be either alive or dead. Even though this event occurs at the same time, there is no interaction or communication between themselves. It is also a frame under the superposition property or quantum superposition. After examine Schrodinger’s equation, Hugh Everett formulated a new theory called “The Theory of Universal Wave function” or “The Quantum wave derivation.”
It reports the properties of Wave and derives it as mathematical equation. But, as a consequence of critics, he left the physics world. Concurrently, He developed many-worlds theory in which he postulated that an event has two or more possibilities at the same universe but under a different reality. Casting a dice has six different possibilities but not interconnected with itself. Later, some scientists realized that the theory was not deserved to be criticized. Many scientists have worked on the Wave function theory and made an extent to it through their theories. According to Hawking, “Black hole of one universe could be a gateway to another universe.”Tegmark’s Mathematical Universe Hypothesis, “Our Physical World has a mathematical dimension in it.”
Tegmark’s Classification of Multiverse is an algorithm of linking Hubble volumes with our universe. Hubble Volumes may or may not contain same physical constants and physical laws. On the account of eternal inflation theory, Stretched Universe will form distinct bubbles that may experience symmetry breaking. It takes the daughter universes theory on account to suggest the different probabilities can occur within the different dimensions of infinite universe. According to the theory of Infinite Universes, “The End of one universe could be the start or beginning of another universe.” String theory, on the other hand, treats one dimensional item like particles as strings. These strings breed and interact with each other in space.
Double-slit Experiment is the only scientific experiment that proves the existence of Multiverse indirectly. An Electron has been fired through slits. Instead of making one-slit shape, it makes two-slit shapes concurrently. It breaks the classical fact of physics, scrutinizes that the light has the properties of either waves or particles. But, Because of wave-particle duality, Light has the properties of both waves and particles. The Conclusion of this essay should state whether Multiverse is a scientific concept or not. As far as the world exists, The New Scientific theories are formulated and the old theories are put under the sheet. There is no possibility for Multiverse still now in the Science.
But, The Discovery of Cold spots and High-particle waves would change the present status of Multiverse.
Unless we travel in the speed of light to reach the Multiverse, The Theories of Multiverse could be taken only as philosophical. To shut the voices of skeptics, The Existence of Multiverse should be stated firmly. The Future has answered many of them. Universal mysteries and upgrade it as a scientific view. Imagining an event has more possibilities makes oneself as mesmerized. This essay firmly believes it as a mystery. Probably, The Future could make it as a scientific theory.
By G.SRIRAM, CHIDHAMBARAM, INDIA